I think it falls on both. I do think there is an attempt for more opportunities (and I agree there needs to be more), but those opportunities have to be accepted as well. And I agree a lot of it because the parents don't try because they grew up in a culture where they didn't have those opportunities, so they just blow it off.I agree that parenting would help, but I think your point is ignoring that the parents (and their parents, and their parents and...) were all part of this system of lack of opportunities and education, and the cycle has just been on repeat because it's obvious nothing is being done to change it (you can point to more money in schools, but it's the utilization of those funds that truly matters, not how much).
All these issues stem from the systemic lack of opportunity.
But in order to have some true change, you need to built a better foundations in the community, school, etc, but the parents and community have to be willing to accept it as well.
I know the city school my sister in law works in, when the COVID outbreak came, they provided all 25 of her students with the laptops, instructions, etc that my kids school provided at Pine Richland.
Over the next 3 months, she only heard from 5 students on a regular basis, 2 more on a semi regular basis, and the other 18 never heard from once. She reached out to the parents through different channels, offered one on one sessions, etc, and was turned town. And then at the end of the day, had to pass them all.
All the tools were provided, the effort was there, but it just was not accepted. These are second graders as well, so the parents still play a large influence. And it was not just her that was pushing above and beyond.